The City of Toronto has a long history of sport. It is home to a number of clubs, including: the Granite Club (est. 1836), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club (est. 1852), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club (est. pre-1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (est. 1872), Toronto Argonauts football club (est. 1873), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club (est. 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (est. 1924). A number of historic venues have been developed in Toronto such as: Christie Pits (est. 1899), Ricoh Coliseum (est. 1921), Varsity Arena (est. 1926), Maple Leaf Gardens (est. 1931).
|Club||League||Venue||Established||Championships||Forbes valuation (year)|
|Toronto Argonauts||Canadian Football League||Rogers Centre||1873||16||—|
|Toronto Maple Leafs||National Hockey League||Air Canada Centre||1917||13||$1.3 billion USD (2014)|
|Toronto Blue Jays||Major League Baseball||Rogers Centre||1977||2||$870 million USD (2015)|
|Toronto Raptors||National Basketball Association||Air Canada Centre||1995||0||$920 million USD (2015)|
|Toronto Rock||National Lacrosse League||Air Canada Centre||1998||5||—|
|Toronto Marlies||American Hockey League||Ricoh Coliseum||2005||0||—|
|Toronto FC||Major League Soccer||BMO Field||2007||0||$175 million USD (2015)|
|Toronto FC II||USL Pro||Ontario Soccer Centre||2015||0||—|
|Raptors 905||NBA D-League||Hershey Centre||2015||0||—|
Toronto has teams in nearly every major professional sport, including the Toronto Blue Jays (MLB), Toronto Argonauts (CFL), Toronto Raptors (NBA), Toronto Rock (NLL), Toronto FC (MLS), and the Toronto Maple Leafs (NHL). Throughout the sports world, Toronto is perhaps best known for the Toronto Maple Leafs. Although Toronto has not won a Stanley Cup since 1967, the city is renowned as a hockey town.
Air Canada Centre (home of the Leafs, Raptors, and Rock) and Rogers Centre (home of the Argonauts and Blue Jays) are located in the downtown core and are within walking distance from one another via Bremner Boulevard. The Rogers Centre was the first stadium to have a fully retractable motorized roof. BMO Field (home of Toronto FC) and Ricoh Coliseum (home of the Toronto Marlies) are located at Exhibition Place, situated just outside the downtown core, while also being within walking distance from one another.
|Toronto Maple Leafs||Intercounty Baseball League||Christie Pits||1969||8|
|TFC Academy||Canadian Soccer League||Lamport Stadium||2008||0|
|Toronto Croatia||Canadian Soccer League||Centennial Park Stadium||1956||8|
|Serbian White Eagles||Canadian Soccer League||Centennial Park Stadium||1968||1|
|Toronto Rush||American Ultimate Disc League||Varsity Stadium||2013||1|
The city is known for the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League, a team with passionate support in the city, and the most financially successful sport franchise in the country. The team built Maple Leaf Gardens, a sporting venue which served as the home arena for the Maple Leafs, and was also used for cultural and other events. Since 1999, they have played in the Air Canada Centre. The team’s roots stretch back to the Toronto Blueshirts of the National Hockey Association, the predecessor to the NHL. The NHA was founded in 1909 without any teams from Toronto. In 1911, the Mutual Street Arena was being built andAmbrose O’Brien, who had operated four NHA franchises but decided to get out of the business, sold two of his franchises to Toronto-based groups. The Toronto Hockey Club purchased one, which would become known as the Blueshirts, and a second was sold to a group affiliated with the Tecumseh Lacrosse Club for $500 cash and promissory notes for $2,000 which would be called the Toronto Tecumsehs. They were scheduled to begin play in the 1911-12 season, but construction delays led to the two Toronto teams being dropped from the schedule and they instead began play in 1912-13.
After a year of play, the Tecumsehs were sold and renamed the Toronto Ontarios. The following year the team was purchased by Eddie Livingstone, who renamed them the Toronto Shamrocks in January 1915. Later that year, Livingstone purchased the Blueshirts giving him ownership of two NHA teams, but after the Pacific Coast Hockey Association raids left him with only enough players for one team, he transferred Shamrocks players to the Blueshirts and only the Blueshirts competed in the 1915–16 NHA season. When Livingstone failed to sell the Shamrocks, the NHA seized the franchise, which was left dormant for the year before being reactivated in 1916–17, awarding it to a Canadian military team, the Toronto 228th Battalion. When the regiment was ordered overseas in February 1917, the team was forced to withdraw. That left the NHA with an odd number of teams, and as a result the team owners, who wanted Livingstone out of the league, decided to suspend operations of the Blueshirts for the remainder of the season. Following the end of the season, Toronto was reinstated, with the condition that the club was to be sold within 60 days. However, Livingstone obtained a court order to prevent the sale.
Before the start of the 1917–18 season, the NHA owners announced that the league would not operate in the 1917–18 season. About two weeks later, all of the owners except Livingstone announced that they were creating a new league, the National Hockey League. Livingstone was not invited to participate in the new league. However, the other teams wished to continue a team in Toronto, and also needed a fourth team to balance the schedule. Accordingly, Livingstone’s landlord, the Toronto Arena Company, was given a temporary franchise in the NHL and leased Livingstone’s Torontos players for the inaugural 1917–18 NHL season. Although the team had no official name, it was made up mostly of former Blue Shirts and ss a result, the newspapers still called the team the Blue Shirts or the Torontos, as they always had. The Arena Company had originally promised to return the Toronto players to Livingstone if no transfer could be arranged. Instead, before the 1918–19 season, it formed a new club, which was known as the Toronto Arenas. This new franchise was separated from the Arena Company. The dispute with Livingstone forced the Arena Company into bankruptcy. The Arenas were sold to a group headed by Charles Querrie for $5000, who renamed them the Toronto St. Patricks. In 1927, with the team in trouble financially due to Querrie having lost a lawsuit to former Livingstone, Querrie put the St. Pats up for sale and agreed in principle to sell them for $200,000 to a group that would move the team to Philadelphia. However, Conn Smythe persuaded Querrie that civic pride was more important than money and put together a syndicate that bought the St. Pats. Smythe himself invested $10,000 of his own money and his group contributed $75,000 up front and a further $75,000 due 30 days later, with minority partner Jack Bickell retaining his $40,000 share in the team. The deal was finalized on Valentine’s Day,and the new owners quickly renamed the team the Toronto Maple Leafs
When the World Hockey Association, a rival league to the NHL, awarded Doug Michel an Ontario based franchise in 1971 for $25,000 to play in the WHA’s inaugural1972–73 season, Toronto was one of several cities under consideration as home for the team. Harold Ballard, owner of the Maple Leafs and Maple Leaf Gardens, offered to rent the arena to the team, but Michel found the rent excessive. He then tried to base the team in Hamilton, but the city did not have an appropriate venue. Michel settled on Ottawa and the team became the Ottawa Nationals. However, after a season at the Ottawa Civic Centre, the team decided to relocate and played their home playoff games at Maple Leaf Gardens. During this time, the team was referred to as the Ontario Nationals. The team moved to Toronto permanently for the following season after being sold to John F. Bassett, son of former Leafs part-owner John Bassett. Future Leafs owner Steve Stavrowas a minority shareholder. They were renamed the Toronto Toros in June 1973. However, they could only attract a fraction of the attendance numbers the competing Leafs drew. In their inaugural season, they played out of Varsity Arena, but played the next two seasons out of Maple Leaf Gardens. The team played their final game in Toronto in 1976, after which a drop in attendance and onerous lease terms at the Gardens forced them to relocate to Birmingham, Alabama as the Birmingham Bulls. There have been numerous attempts to establish a second NHL team in the Greater Toronto Area or nearby Hamilton. The latter briefly had the Hamilton Tigers in the NHL from 1920, when local interests purchased and relocated the Quebec Bulldogs, until 1925 when they folded.
In 2003, the Toronto Roadrunners of the American Hockey League played their inaugural season out of a renovated Ricoh Coliseum in Exhibition Place. They served as a farm club for the NHL’s Edmonton Oilers. After a season of bad attendance, the team relocated to Edmonton, Alberta. However, with the Ricoh Coliseum vacated, a new tenant for the facility was found with the Maple Leafs relocating their AHL farm team, the St. John’s Maple Leafs, from St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador to Toronto as the Toronto Marlies in 2005.
Toronto has also hosted various international hockey tournaments, hosting parts of the 1972 and 1974 Summit Series, parts of the 1976 and 1991 Canada Cups, parts of the 2004 World Cup of Hockey, and parts of the 2015 World Junior Ice Hockey Championship.
Toronto interests long pursued a major league team for the city. Toronto was proposed as the home for a National League(NL) team by Albert Spalding when he was established the league in 1876. Exhibition games were played by both the NL and American League (AL) of Major League Baseball (MLB) in Toronto in the 1910s. Member of Parliament Bernard Rickart Hepburn was granted a Toronto franchise by the Federal League, a rival major league to the NL and AL, for its inaugural season in 1914, after the franchise was revoked from Cleveland. But after speculation the franchise would be returned to Cleveland or moved to Cincinnati, it was transferred to Brooklyn to become the Brooklyn Tip-Tops prior to playing a game in Toronto. Hepburn cited his inability to find a park to play at in short notice as the reason the team didn’t launch. However, he secured an agreement with the league which granted him the rights to a team for the following season. Though Toronto would be proposed as the new home to the Kansas City Packers Federal League franchise for the 1915 season, no team ever came to fruition in the city.
Toronto interests put forward a bid to buy the Washington Nationals to move them to Toronto in 1918 when there was discussion of the team relocating.The following year it was reported that there were plans for the Boston Red Sox, Chicago White Sox and New York Yankees, which were dissatisfied with the President of the AL Ban Johnson, to break away and form their own new major league, which would include Toronto. In 1922 a Toronto group attempted to purchase the Boston Red Sox to relocate them to Toronto. The owner of the Boston Braves, Lou Perini, tried to sell his team to Toronto interests in the early 1950s before relocating them to become the Milwaukee Braves. While owning the Maple Leafs baseball team, Jack Kent Cooke set his sights on bringing MLB to Toronto. He made a bid on the St. Louis Browns in 1953, but the team was sold to a competing group which relocated them to become the Baltimore Orioles the following season. The AL considered Toronto as a potential home for the Philadelphia Athletics before they became the Kansas City Athletics in 1955, after Cooke bid on them, but the city’s lack of a major league venue was an obstacle to acquiring a team. Cooke unsuccessfully bid on the Detroit Tigers in 1956, reportedly to move them to Toronto. In 1957 he submitted a bid for a NL expansion team for Toronto. In 1958, Cooke offered to withdraw from Toronto if the Los Angeles Dodgers, who were considering relocating, moved to the city, in exchange for partial ownership of the club. That same year it was reported that Toronto was one of the cities that the owner of the Washington Senators was considering relocating his team to. In 1959 Cooke became one of the founding owners in the Continental League, a proposed third major league of baseball, getting a team for Toronto for a fee of $50,000, but the league disbanded a year later without ever staging a game. Cooke later applied to the AL for a Toronto expansion team in 1960, but found the expansion terms too onerous, and considered purchasing the Cincinnati Reds for Toronto in 1961 after their owner died.
In 1967, with mounting losses, the owner of the baseball Maple Leafs sough a buyer to keep the team in Toronto. Maple Leaf Gardens Limited, owner of the Maple Leafs of the NHL, considered purchasing the team, but the deal ultimately fell apart due to concerns about the team’s home, Maple Leaf Stadium, which needed up to $250,000 in repairs and whose owner wanted $4 million to purchase it. Harold Ballard, part owner of MLGL, said that the company’s interest was due in part to help position itself to go after a MLB franchise for Toronto. The team was subsequently relocated out of Toronto to Louisville, Kentucky.
In 1967 a Toronto group was one of six to submit a bid for a NL expansion team. In 1971, Howard Webster, chairman of the Globe and Mail, made an offer to purchase the San Diego Padres and relocate them to Toronto but it was refused. In early 1974, MLGL announced plans to build a new baseball stadium in Toronto, but the city ultimately decided to renovate Exhibition Stadium to make it suitable for baseball. Later that year a group called Canadian Baseball Co. led by Sydney Cooper submitted an application to both the AL and NL for a franchise. Cooper had previously been part of Webster’s group. At the time it was reported that there were at least four groups bidding for a Toronto team, including ones led by Labatt Brewing Company, MLGL and Robert Hunter, the former President of the International League Maple Leafs, in addition to Canadian Baseball Co. Lorne Duguid, vice-president of Hiram Walker Distillers and MLGL executive, led MLGL’s bid.
In 1975 the owner of the Baltimore Orioles stated that he was in negotiations to sell his team to a Toronto group. The following January, San Francisco Giantsowner Horace Stoneham agreed to sell the team for $13.25 million to a group headed by Labatt intending to relocate it to Toronto. The team would have begun play in the 1976 season at Exhibition Stadium, and be called the Toronto Giants. However the plan to move the Giants was quashed by a U.S. court. The MLGL group also bid on the Giants, with Ballard stating that they had offered $15 million for the team, after having previously negotiated with the owners of theBaltimore Orioles, Chicago White Sox, Cleveland Indians and Oakland Athletics in their attempt to acquire a team for Toronto.
The Labatt group then pursued a NL expansion team, but when the NL only agreed to consider expanding in March 1976, while the AL voted to grant Toronto a team, they switched gears. A second Toronto group backed by Carling O’Keefe also applied for the AL expansion team. Less than a week later, the AL awarded the team to the Labatt group, which included Webster, and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), for $7 million. A few days later the NL had their own vote on expanding to Toronto and Washington, but while receiving a majority support of 10-2 it failed to pass due to lack of unanimity and was put off for two weeks. The NL objected to the AL’s expansion in to Toronto, arguing that the NL was a better match for the city with a natural rivalry with theMontreal Expos, and asked baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn to intervene so they could reconsider their own expansion plans. Kuhn requested a moratorium on the AL’s expansion plans, but a second non-unanimous vote by the NL on expanding to Toronto left Toronto uncontested to the AL. The Toronto Blue Jays inaugural campaign was in 1977 with Exhibition Stadium chosen as the site for the team’s home games. Built in the 1950s, it was rebuilt in 1976 to satisfy the requirements for baseball. In 1989, the team moved to the newly built SkyDome (now known as the Rogers Centre). Although the team performed poorly, placing last in the American League East for each of its first three years, successful drafting and team management resulted in improved performance that led to the team’s first pennant in 1985, and culminated with consecutive World Series victories in 1992 and 1993.
The city is also home to the Toronto Maple Leafs baseball club of the Intercounty Baseball League.
Toronto has also hosted parts of the 2009 World Baseball Classic.
Although not as historically entrenched in Toronto culture as other sports, basketball does have significant milestones in the city. The first major professional basketball game in the city was an exhibition between the Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons and Rochester Royals of the National Basketball League at the Gardens in 1946. The first game of the professional Basketball Association of America, forerunner of the National Basketball Association (NBA), was contested atMaple Leaf Gardens (MLG) between the Toronto Huskies and the New York Knickerbockers on November 1, 1946. However, the Huskies folded after the league’s inaugural season follow losses thought to total $60,000. Numerous exhibition and regular season NBA and American Basketball Association (ABA) games were held at both MLG and SkyDome over the years, including a total of 16 regular season Buffalo Braves games at MLG from 1971-75 in an attempt to gauge the city’s interest in a full-time team.
Ruby Richman, the former coach of Canada’s national basketball team, working with the head of Maple Leaf Gardens Limited (MLGL) Harold Ballard, pursued a number of existing ABA and NBA teams to relocate to the city in the 1970s. Richman had a tentative agreement to purchase both the Miami Floridiansand Pittsburgh Condors of the ABA with the plan to merge them into a single Toronto based team, but the deal fell through. Later Richman held negotiations with the Detroit Pistons, which were seeking $5 million for the franchise, but pulled out when the price was raised to $8.25 million. MLGL attempted to purchase the Braves for $8.5 million and relocate them to Toronto in 1974, and again several times later, with Carling O’Keefe also considering purchasing the team in 1976, but the owners eventually chose to move the team to San Diego.
When Toronto was awarded an expansion NBA franchise in 1974 for the 1975-76 season MLGL was one of three groups to bid for the rights to the team, but the club never materialized since no group was able to secure funding for the expansion fee of at least $6.15 million. MLGL attempted to purchase and relocate the Houston Rockets in 1975, which were seeking $8 million for the team, but the teams lease ultimately prevented a relocation. In 1976 MLGL attempted to buy the Atlanta Hawks. In 1979 a Toronto group which included Balard again pushed for an expansion franchise, but lost out to the Dallas Mavericks.
Toronto interests considered purchasing and relocating the Kansas City Kings in 1979. In 1983, Cleveland Cavaliers owner Ted Stepien stated that “the chances are 999-to-1” that his team would be relocated and renamed the Toronto Towers, playing their games in MLG, with Carling O’Keefe thought to be involved financially in the deal, but he ultimately sold it to a local group. A Toronto group which included Bill Ballard, son of Harold, and Basketball Hall of Famer Wilt Chamberlain submitted an application and $100,000 deposit for a NBA expansion franchise for MLG in 1986, but of the six cities to apply Toronto was not one of the four which were successful. Larry Tanenbaum attempted to purchase and relocate the Denver Nuggets to Toronto in 1991, but the team could not get out of its lease at the McNichols Arena. Tanenbaum later pursued the New Jersey Nets and San Antonio Spurs unsuccessfully. It wasn’t until the NBA awarded an expansion franchise to John Bitove, over Tanenbaum’s group which had partnered with the Maple Leafs, and the Toronto Raptors joined the NBA for the 1995–96 season that the city once again had a team of its own. The franchise was one of two Canadian expansion teams announced by the NBA in 1993, the other being the Vancouver Grizzlies, which moved south of the border to Memphis after the 2000–01 season.
The Toronto Tornados of the minor league Continental Basketball Association played in the city from 1983-85 before being relocated to Pensacola, Florida in the middle of their third season to become the Pensacola Tornados.
Toronto has also hosted parts of the 1994 FIBA World Championship.
Toronto is home to the oldest professional football team in North America, the Toronto Argonauts, who have won the Grey Cup championship a record 15 times. Toronto has also played host to the Grey Cup Championship 46 times, more than any other city and most recently the 100th Grey Cup in 2012, which was won by the home town Argonauts. The Argos were founded in 1873 by the Argonaut Rowing Club, and is referred to as the Boatmen in honour of that heritage. The team is also known as the double blue because of the franchise colours (Oxford blue and Cambridge blue); the colour blue has become emblematic of the city and most of its sport franchises. The Argos also draw the highest per-game attendance of any sports team in Toronto and draw the second highest per-game TV ratings nationally of any Toronto based sports team (after the Maple Leafs hockey club). In the early 1970s, Maple Leaf Gardens Limited announced plans to apply for a second Canadian Football League team to be based in Toronto which would play at Varsity Stadium, but the proposal never went anywhere. During his tenure as owner of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Ballard repeatedly threatened to move the franchise to Varsity Stadium, but the move was vetoed by the Argos.
Toronto also has a long history with American football. The first professional U.S. football team to play a home game in Toronto was the Los Angeles Wildcats of theAmerican Football League of 1926, the first major competitor to the National Football League for the dominance of professional football. While the Wildcats nominally represented Los Angeles, California, frequent travel to the west coast still posed a major obstacle so the team was instead a traveling team based inIllinois and played most of its games in the home stadiums of its opponents, with the exception of the Toronto game. The Wildcats lost the regular season game to the New York Yankees (which would join the National Football League (NFL) the following year) 28-0 in front of 10,000 fans at Maple Leaf Stadium on 8 November 1926. The NFL has had a presence in Toronto since 1959 when the Argonauts hosted three NFL teams in a three-season span. The nearby Hamilton Tiger-Cats also hosted a game against the Buffalo Bills, then an American Football League team. Several decades later, the American Bowl and later the Bills Toronto Series brought both preseason and regular season games to the Rogers Centre.
There have been several failed attempts to establish a professional American football franchise in Toronto in the past. A Toronto group submitted a bid for anAmerican Football League expansion team for the city in 1960, the expansion fee set at $125,000, with plans to play in the league’s second season in the following year. Toronto interests continued pursuing an AFL team for several years, with the league naming the city as a potential expansion market in 1965. In 1964 a Toronto group applied for a United Football League franchise, but ultimately withdrew their bid for a team. Following the season, a Toronto group attempted to purchase the Canton Bulldogs of the UFL to relocate them to Toronto. When the Continental Football League was established for the 1965 season with former UFL teams, the Quebec Rifles of the UFL were admitted and transferred to Toronto to become the Toronto Rifles due to a lack of a suitable facility in Montreal. The Rifles competed in the Continental League from 1965–67, but the owners pulled out in the middle of their final season after having lost a reported $400,000 in their final full season. The league took over the club and planned to have it play all of its games on the road, but several weeks later the team folded.
During John Bassett’s ownership of the Argonauts from the late 1950s to early 1970s, he entertained various machinations for bringing American football to Toronto, including moving the Argos to the NFL or bringing an NFL team to the city alongside the Argos. Other CFL team owners were steadfastly against Bassett’s moves and almost rescinded his franchise in 1974. His son John F. Bassett obtained a World Football League franchise for the city in the league’s inaugural season of 1974, which he named the Toronto Northmen, but in response the Canadian government proposed the Canadian Football Act, a bill that would have banned US football leagues from playing in Canada to protect the CFL from competition The bill forced Bassett to move the club toMemphis were they became the Memphis Southmen. When the legislation died without being approved before the 1974 Canadian federal election, Bassett again attempted to put a team in Toronto for the 1975 season. There were plans to establish a United States Football League franchise in Toronto in 1983 being pushed by John F. Bassett, but again the Canadian government warned against it and the idea was dropped. The XFL considered expanding to Toronto for 2002, but ultimately folded after its inaugural season in 2001. There have been efforts to bring an NFL team to Toronto for more than 40 years. As of 2014, it has been widely reported that Toronto interests, including Larry Tanenbaum, part owner of Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment (MLSE), andEdward Rogers III, Deputy Chairman of Rogers Communication, are attempting to acquire a NFL franchise in hopes of moving it to Toronto.
There were numerous attempts to bring the Arena Football League to Maple Leaf Gardens in the 1990s. The city was considered by the league for a 1996 and 1997 expansion club, with John Bitove, owner of the Toronto Raptors, one of several groups interested in owning the team. MLSE held negotiations with the Arena League on acquiring a $4–7 million expansion franchise for 1999 to coincide with the opening of their new building the ACC. Several other groups also considered putting a club in the ACC following its opening. In 2000, the New England Sea Wolves were purchased by a group led by Rogers Communication and relocated from Hartford, Connecticut, becoming the Toronto Phantoms the following year. However, the team lasted only two seasons before folding when the Arena League switched its regular season window from the summer to the spring.
Toronto has also hosted the Vanier Cup Championship 41 times, the most out of any host city, serving as its exclusive host from its inception in 1965 until 2003. In 2004, Canadian Interuniversity Sport began accepting bids from other cities to host the event. Since then, Toronto has won 2 additional bids to host Vanier Cup Championships in 2007 & 2012 to coincide with both the 95th & 100th Grey Cups being played during the same weekend in the city.
Toronto was also host to a series of NCAA football bowl games called the International Bowl between 2007-2010.
Toronto was granted an expansion team in the Lingerie Football League, called the Toronto Triumph. The Triumph began in 2011 and played their games at theRicoh Coliseum. The league is legitimate indoor football, played by women dressed in lingerie.
Toronto has had teams in a number of first division soccer leagues of the United States. The Toronto Greenbacks were members of the North American Soccer Football League for its two years of existence in 1946-47. In 1967, two rival leagues began play: the United Soccer Association (USA) and National Professional Soccer League (NPSL). Both leagues had Toronto based clubs with Toronto City (owned by future owner of Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Steve Stavro) joining the USA and the Toronto Falcons in the NPSL and both playing their games at Varsity Stadium. Following the merger of the two leagues for the 1968 season only the Falcons survived, with Stavro selling his team back to the league for $160,000. However, the Falcons only played a single year in the newly founded North American Soccer League (NASL) with losses reported to be up to $500,000 before folding. The following year, Toronto City was invited to join the NASL. Subsequently, the Toronto Metros joined the NASL in 1971, and though they were renamed theToronto Metros-Croatia in 1975 following the purchase of 50% of the club for $250,000 by the Toronto Croatia of the National Soccer League, and again in 1979 to the Toronto Blizzard following the acquisition of 85% of the team by Global Television Network for $2.6 million, the team played until the NASL folded in 1984.
In 1994, then part owner of the SkyDome Labatt considered purchasing a team in Major League Soccer (MLS), the new top US league, to play at the stadium. In 2004, then Toronto Argonauts owners Howard Sokolowski and David Cynamon considered bringing a MLS team to the city in connection with negotiations on the construction of a new stadium to jointly house the Argos and soccer, but when BMO Field was ultimately built the Argos were excluded for the deal. In 2007,Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment launched Toronto FC in MLS as its first international team.
Toronto has also hosted professional indoor soccer teams. The Metros-Croatia fielded a team in NASL’s indoor league from 1975–76, as did the Blizzard in 1980-82. The Major Indoor Soccer League considered putting a team in Toronto in 1987. In 1988 the American Indoor Soccer Association (AISA) granted Toronto a franchise which was to play its games at Hamilton, Ontario’s Copps Coliseum, but the team never launched. The Toronto Shooting Stars competed in the National Professional Soccer League, as the AISA had renamed itself, during the 1996-97 season, but the ownership of the franchise collapsed just 3 games in, forcing the league to take control of the team’s operations for the remainder of the season.After loses of nearly $1 million, the team suspended operations and never returned to play. An application was made for a new NPSL Toronto team in 1998. The NPSL returned to Toronto with the Toronto ThunderHawksfor the 2000-01 season, playing at the Hershey Centre in Mississauga, Ontario. When the NPSL disbanded in the summer of 2001 and reorganized as the Major Indoor Soccer League, the ThunderHawks were admitted to the new league under the condition that they would suspend operations for the 2001-2002 season to work on the business side of the franchise and return to active competition for the 2002—2003 season. However, the team never returned from this temporary suspension of operations.
Toronto has also been home to numerous minor pro soccer teams. The Toronto Blizzard played in the Canadian Soccer League from 1987-1992 and the American Professional Soccer League in 1993 before folding following the United States Soccer Federation’s decision to reject the APSL’s bid for sanctioning as a first division league in favour of a competing bid from the group that would found MLS. The Blizzard were replaced in the APSL by the Toronto Rockets in 1994, but they to folded prior to the following season. The A-League, as the APSL was then known, awarded Toronto another team to begin play in 1997. When the A-league and USISL Select League merged for the 1997 season, the Toronto expansion team, which was named the Toronto Lynx, debuted in the combined league, which carried on the A-League name. The Lynx would play in the A-League until 2004. When the league was renamed the USL First Division, they continued their membership. However, in 2007, with the arrival of TFC to the city, the Lynx dropped down to the fourth USL Premier Development League, in which they have competed ever since.
Toronto hosted parts of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Toronto also hosted the 2010 Major League Soccer championship match between FC Dallas and Colorado Rapids (Colorado defeated Dallas 2-1). It was the first time the MLS cup took place outside of the United States.
The Toronto Rock, which operate in the National Lacrosse League, were founded in 1998 as the Ontario Raiders in Hamilton. The following year, the team moved to Toronto proceeded to finish first every year from 1999 to 2005 and won the league championship in five of those seven seasons. The city previously had several professional box lacrosse teams. A team named the Toronto Maple Leafs competed in the first season of the professional International Lacrosse League at theArena Gardens. Following the season, a new franchise was awarded to Conn Smythe on behalf of Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. (MLGL), which was also named the Toronto Maple Leafs, with the 1931 Maple Leafs being renamed the Tecumsehs. Both teams played at the newly opened Maple Leaf Gardens. Smythe pulled out following the season due to financial losses, and the league didn’t play the following year. Toronto also had a team in theAmerican Box Lacrosse League in 1932.
The Toronto Maple Leafs competed in the inaugural season of the National Lacrosse Association in 1968 at the Gardens. Stafford Smythe and Harold Ballard, part owners of the NHL Maple Leafs, were two of the five founding partners of the club but financial difficulties forced MLGL to take over ownership midway though the season. The NLA suspended operations prior to the following season. However, the eastern division of the NLA reconstituted itself as the Eastern Professional Lacrosse Association, in which the Maple Leafs competed in 1969. By 1970 the pro league league had disbanded.
The Toronto Shooting Stars joined the professional National Lacrosse League (unrelated to the modern NLL) for its inaugural season in 1972. When a new professional league launched as the National Lacrosse League (again unrelated to today’s NLL) in 1974, the Toronto Tomahawks were included as a charter franchise. The Shooting Stars continued as an amateur team in the Ontario Lacrosse Association, but folded following the 1974 season. The Tomahawks were sold following the 1974 season, and received league approval to move the team to Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Long Island,New York. However, ultimately it was decided to relocate the team to Boston to become the Boston Bolts for the start of the 1975 NLL season, with the Rochester Griffins becoming the Long Island Tomahawks.
In 2009, the Toronto Nationals of Major League Lacrosse was established, with much of the roster of the Rochester Rattlers, which would be suspended, being transferred to the new Nationals’ team. However, the name, colours, and history stayed behind in Rochester to potentially be used by a future MLL team. In their inaugural year in Toronto, the Nationals went on to win the Steinfeld Cup. In 2011, the team relocated to Hamilton, Ontario, and after the 2013 season the team announced they would not field a team the following season.
Toronto currently has seven different Australian rules football teams called the Broadview Hawks, High Park Demons, Central Blues, Etobicoke Kangaroos,Lakeshore Rebels, Toronto Downtown Dingos, and the Toronto Eagles. There are two more Ontario Australian Football League teams in the surrounding areas, theHamilton Wildcats and the Guelph Gargoyles.
The city hosts the Honda Indy Toronto in July which is a street circuit that runs through Exhibition Place and Lake Shore Boulevard. Historically, the city played host to the 1958 Jim Mideon 500, a NASCAR Sprint Cup Series racing event. Legendary NASCAR athlete Lee Petty won this race defeating his son Richard in his Cup Series debut.
Canadian Tire Motorsports Park, located approximately 100 km east of Toronto in the community of Bowmanville, hosts an United SportsCar Championship andNASCAR Camping World Truck Series race yearly, along with various other events. The track also hosted Formula One’s Canadian Grand Prix from 1961 to 1977 (except for 1968 and 1970).
The Canada Masters, currently sponsored as the Rogers Cup, is an annual tennis tournament held in Canada. The men’s competition is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event on the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) tour. The women’s competition is a Premier 5 event on the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) tour. The events alternate from year-to-year between the cities of Montreal and Toronto. In odd-numbered years, the men’s tournament is held in Montreal, while the women’s tournament is held in Toronto, and vice versa in even-numbered years. The competition is played on hard courts.
Horse racing is currently done at the Woodbine Racetracks. Woodbine Racetrack in the northwestern suburb of Rexdale in Toronto, Ontario is the only horseracing track in North America which stages, or is capable of staging, thoroughbred and standardbred horseracing programs on the same day. Woodbine hosts two of the three legs of the Canadian Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing—the opening Queen’s Plate on its Polytrack synthetic dirt course, and the closing Breeders’ Stakes on grass.
Toronto has submitted bids to host the Summer Olympic Games five times over the years: 1960, 1964, 1976, 1996 and 2008. The closest it came to winning the games was in 2008, when it finished second to Beijing by a vote of 56-22. Varsity Stadium, home of the Argonauts, hosted some soccer games of the 1976 Montreal Olympics.
In 2009, Toronto submitted a bid to host the Pan American Games and Parapan American Games, subsequently winning both of them for 2015. After successfully hosting both the 2015 Pan American Games & 2015 Parapan American Games, the city briefly considered another Olympic bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics,but on September 15, 2015, Toronto Mayor John Tory announced that the city would not be a candidate for a bid.
Due to their geographic locations, Toronto has an intense sports rivalry with many cities around the Great Lakes. For football, Toronto has a rivalry with Hamilton(begun in 1873 and is heightened during the Labour Day Classic), Ottawa and as far as Montreal. In hockey, Toronto’s biggest rivals are the Montreal Canadiens and the Ottawa Senators (often dubbed the “Battle of Ontario”). Toronto’s lesser rivals include the Boston Bruins, Detroit Red Wings, St. Louis Blues, andBuffalo Sabres.
DigiMarCon is the Largest Digital Marketing Conference & Exhibition series in the world, with annual events held in all continents (North America, Latin America, Europe, UK, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa) in 10 countries (United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Singapore, India, United Arab Emirates and South Africa), across 15 cities (New York, Toronto, San Francisco, Houston, Los Angeles, Chicago, Orlando, Sydney, London, Amsterdam, Singapore, New Delhi, Dubai, Johannesburg and Online). Wherever you are located there is a regional DigiMarCon event nearby you can attend.
DigiMarCon Conferences are held in top luxury 5-star event venues across the world such as; Royal Caribbean Cruise Ships, Olympic Stadiums, Marina Bay Sands Expo & Convention Centre and JW Marriott, Marriott Marquis, Hyatt Regency, InterContinental, Loews and Sofitel Hotel properties. Discount hotel room rates at each venue hotel means no hassle getting to and from the venue each day.
Building relationships matter! At DigiMarCon Conferences we have more networking breaks on our program than others. On average there are 8 Networking breaks at each event giving delegates ample opportunities in a relaxed atmosphere to meet others over the 2-days at the event; from 1-hour round table networking luncheons to 3-hour dinner receptions. These networking breaks are set in picturesque locations to facilitate memorable experiences while fostering new relationships. Such experiences include enjoying cocktails and the Sunset over the Pacific Ocean on a private Ocean Terrace in Santa Monica, to being on the Sydney Olympic Stadium playing arena at night enjoying cocktails under the lights, to dining at the 360 Revolving Restaurant at the top of the CN Tower in Toronto for a Dinner Reception, enjoying cocktails on a private promenade overlooking Times Square in New York City, or having fun at the Dazzles Night Club onboard the Royal Caribbean Oasis of the Seas for a Farewell Party, etc.
DigiMarCon Keynotes, Panels and Master Classes are facilitated by the foremost thought leaders in the industry, from celebrity social media influencers to CMO’s from the largest Fortune 500 company brands that are disrupting the digital marketing industry, such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon, Oracle, Adobe, eBay, Netflix and more. All presentations are pitch-free, and include actionable takeaways, case studies, strategies and tactics, ready to be applied when back in the office.
At DigiMarCon Conferences you are never ‘left in the dark’…. literally, in a large room far away from the stage and speakers, crushed in tight theater seating, without even a desk, while sitting in the dark. At DigiMarCon all delegates have premium meeting space in luxurious ballroom well-lit spaces, with comfortable seating with desk enabling delegates to use their laptop to take notes with ample charging facilities onsite in a comfortable space to learn and thrive. All tables are situated close with direct view of the stage.
DigiMarCon Conferences are affordable to attend, from single-day event passes up to two-day VIP options at a fraction of the cost of other industry events. We offer significant discounts for early bird registrations. Additionally, on top of time-limited discount pass rates, because budgets are tight, we want to make sure all groups have a chance to attend DigiMarCon. For government employees, students, academic, startups, non-profit organizations and teams, we offer generous discounts off the prevailing registration price.
Attend DigiMarCon and you become part of the show! DigiMarCon Conferences tap into the talent of the room, drawing from the knowledge and experience of the professionals in the audience. All DigiMarCon events include regular interactive question and answer sessions with speakers and the audience ideal for collaboration, audience polls, along with ice-breaker and group exercises, steered by charismatic Emcees.
DigiMarCon Conferences put you right up and close with the speakers giving you the opportunity to meet these social media influencers which you follow in person. Speakers are never hidden in private speaker rooms away from the audience, they are in the auditorium sitting right beside you and participating.
Attending a conference is a well-researched decision. There are many factors to consider such as location, time, venue, cost, speakers, content, etc. At DigiMarCon our results-obsessed Customer Service team are at your service before, during and after the event to help with your needs. It’s at the core of what we do — it drives our business. Offsite, we are ready to assist you via phone, ticket or chat. Onsite at our Conferences, friendly DigiMarCon staff serve as your hosts. They welcome your input and are happy to assist you.
At all DigiMarCon Conferences is the co-located exclusive event TECHSPO Technology Expo, which showcases the new generation of technology and innovation, including; AdTech, MarTech, Internet, Mobile and SaaS technologies. Be inspired, amazed and educated on how these evolving technologies will impact your business for the better. Access to TECHSPO Technology Expo is included with all DigiMarCon passes.
DigiMarCon All Access & VIP Passes include a 12-month on demand access to hundreds of hours of DigiMarCon speaker keynotes, panels and master class presentations from recent DigiMarCon Conferences, including videos, slide decks and key takeaways, available on demand so you can watch what you want, when you want.
Attendees of DigiMarcon Conferences gain membership to an exclusive global Digital Marketing Community of over 500,000 worldwide subscribers to our award-winning digital marketing blog and over 70,000 members to our Digital Marketing Professionals Group in LinkedIn (visit https://www.linkedin.com/groups/2661359/). This global community comprises of innovators, senior marketers and branders, entrepreneurs, digital executives and professionals, web & mobile strategists, designers and web project managers, business leaders, business developers, agency executives and their teams and anyone else who operates in the digital community who leverage digital, mobile, and social media marketing. We provide updates to the latest whitepapers and industry reports to keep you updated on trends, innovation and best practice digital marketing.
This page will answer many of the questions you may have about DigiMarCon Canada 2021.
DigiMarCon Canada 2021 takes place from May 20th to 21st, 2021 at the Toronto Marriott Downtown Eaton Centre Hotel, Toronto, ON. Click here for travel details.
Toronto Marriott Downtown Eaton Centre Hotel Address:
525 Bay Street
Toronto, ON M5G 2L2
From Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport (YTZ):
From Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ):
From John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport (YHM):
On-site parking, fee: 7 CAD hourly, 35 CAD daily
Valet parking, fee: 45 CAD daily (subject to change).
Here’s the high-level schedule (note: all times are Eastern Daylight Time):
Friday, May 16, 2019
9:00am - 9:45am: Registration Check-in, Welcome Refreshments & Networking
9:45am - 12:00pm: General Session
12:00pm – 1:00pm: Networking Luncheon
1:00pm – 3:00pm: General Session
3:00pm – 3:40pm: Refreshments & Networking
3:40pm – 5:00pm: General Session
5:00pm – 5:30pm: Charter Bus to Distillery District
5:00pm – 9:00pm: Welcome Dinner Reception
7:30pm – 9:00pm: Charter Bus to Toronto Marriott Downtown Hotel
Friday, May 17, 2019
9:00am - 9:45am: Registration Check-in, Welcome Refreshments & Networking
9:45am – 12:30pm: Master Classes
12:30pm – 1:30pm: Networking Luncheon
1:30pm – 3:30pm: Master Classes
3:30pm - 5:30pm: Farewell Cocktail Reception
Regular price is $797 (CAD) for a main conference access. We are also offering an All Access Pass, which includes the main conference, all Master Classes, Welcome and Farewell Cocktail Receptions and Video on Demand, for $1,097 (CAD). Last but not least we have a Virtual Pass/Video On Demand (VOD) option for those who can’t make the conference for $347 (CAD). For more information about pricing and the different passes available please click here.
Your completed Main Conference Pass registration provides you the following:
Your completed All Access Pass registration provides you everything included in the Main Conference Pass plus the following:
Your completed VIP Pass registration provides you everything included in the All Access Pass plus the following:
The following forms of payment are accepted: American Express, Visa, MasterCard, and PayPal. Payment is required to complete your registration.
Absolutely! Bring as many colleagues as you’d like! Register FOUR or more people from the same company simultaneously to receive $200 discount off the prevailing registration price for each member of your group.
There are just a few simple Group Registration rules:
More details about Group Rates here.
Academic, Government, Military & Non-Profit discount rates at DigiMarCon Canada 2021 apply to current full-time employees of academic institutions, federal, state or local government agencies, international government agencies, active military and non-profit organization employees only.
More details about Discount Rates here.
Conference attire is business casual for all events, including the evening events. We do recommend bringing a sweater or light jacket with you since personal preferences vary regarding room temperature.
All attendees at the conference and networking events must be registered attendees who purchased tickets.
You may send a substitute in your place at any time. All such requests must be submitted by email to registration[at]digimarcon.com (replace at with @). Only requests made by the original registrant will be honored.
You may cancel your participation in DigiMarCon Canada 2021 at any time, but please be aware of the following cancellation policy listed below.
Registration cancellations received 90 days prior to the Conference incur a 25% processing/administrative fee. Refunds will be issued within 30 days after event. If you must cancel for any reason, notify our registration department by 90 days prior to the Conference. Cancellations less than 90 days prior to the Conference are non-refundable. Substitutions allowed prior to 90 days prior to the Conference with written or Faxed authorization only. No substitutions less than 90 days prior to the Conference. Cancellations less than 90 days prior to the Conference are non-refundable for any reason, including, but not limited to, failure to use DigiMarCon credentials due to illness, acts of God, travel-related problems, acts of terrorism, loss of employment and duplicate purchase. DigiMarCon will not issue refunds for badges that have been revoked.
Unused registrations/applications have no monetary value and cannot be credited to future years or events. DigiMarCon will not issue refunds or credits due to failure to redeem a discount coupon during the registration process. Discounted prices are based on the date payment is received in the DigiMarCon office. Reselling DigiMarCon Canada 2021 registrations is not permitted.
Yes, international attendees are welcome at each of our conferences.
Yes, this is often requested for International Attendees. After you have registered, send a letter request email to email@example.com and provide your address, company name, company title and passport information to be included in the invitation letter.
You can request a cancellation at any time. Refer to our refund policy for refund eligibility criteria.
The official conference hotel to stay in Toronto is;
Toronto Marriott Downtown Eaton Centre Hotel
525 Bay Street
Toronto, ON M5G 2L2
Hotel Booking Instructions
To book a room at Toronto Marriott Downtown Eaton Centre Hotel follow the instructions below;
Call 1-800-228-9290, ask for reservations, give group name ‘DigiMarCon Canada 2021’ and arrival date and book.
Yes, DigiMarCon will send emails periodically to update you on the agenda, event happenings and logistics. Please make sure that the email address registration[at]digimarcon.com (replace at with @) is in your safe senders list to ensure you are receiving all important event information.
There are a limited number of sponsored keynote speaking spots still available during the conference. Please contact Aaron Polmeer, aaron[at]digimarcon.com (replace at with @), if you are interested in this opportunity.
Sessions may be audio recorded without special permission for personal use only. They cannot be placed online or transmitted to others without permission.
Sessions may be videoed only with special permission for personal use and also cannot be placed online or transmitted to others. Short audio and video clips may be used for blogging and press coverage of sessions. As a general guide, non-contiguous clips of one minute or less should be used. Contact us if you need guidance about longer clips.
I. INFORMATION COLLECTED BY DigiMarCon OR ON DigiMarCon BEHALF
Personally identifiable information (Personal Information) is information that can be used to identify or contact you. We collect the Personal Information that you provide to us in two general and distinct ways: (1) when you choose to purchase various services or products offered by DigiMarCon and/or its affiliated business partners, or (2) when you choose to participate in surveys or send e-mails to DigiMarCon. This Site is not intended for use by persons under eighteen (18) years of age. DigiMarCon does not knowingly collect Personal Information from or about children under the age of eighteen (18).
We collect anonymous, non-confidential, and non-personal information when you use our site, send us e-mails, or respond to special promotions or newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. For example, cookies are small computer files that we transfer to your computer's hard drive that allow us to know how often someone visits a site and the activities they conduct while on that site (such as the chat rooms you visited, whether you submitted orders for services or products, etc.). Every computer is assigned a different cookie by DigiMarCon. The information collected by cookies helps us dynamically generate advertising and content on web pages or in e-mails specifically designed for you and also allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails. We may use cookie information to target certain advertisements to your browser or to determine the popularity of certain content or advertisements. It may be possible to link non-personal cookie information to Personal Information collected. You may be able to turn off cookies in your browser, but this may hinder our ability to provide you with certain services or your ability to enjoy certain features of the Site.
In limited circumstances we also may use "web beacons" to collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of our Web site and the sites of selected affiliated partners, and your use of e-mails, special promotions or newsletters we may send to you from time to time. Web beacons are tiny graphic image files imbedded in a web page or e-mail that provide a presence on the web page or e-mail and send back to its home server information from the Users' browser. The information collected by web beacons allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails, and for what purposes. It may be possible to link non-personal web beacon information to Personal Information collected.
As noted in the discussions of cookies and web beacons (see above), we collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of e-mails and newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. In some cases, when you click on a link or an advertisement in an e-mail or newsletter, your browser may be momentarily directed to the site of a third party which, acting on DigiMarCon behalf (see Disclosure to Web site Service and Content Contractors, below), notes or "counts" your response to the e-mail or newsletter before re-directing your browser to its proper destination. This re-direction process will not be apparent to you.
II. DISCLOSURE OF YOUR INFORMATION
Except as set forth in this Section II, or as specifically agreed to by you, DigiMarCon will employ best efforts to not use or disclose any Personal Information it gathers from you unless reasonably required in order to answer your questions, provide products and/or services you may request or purchase from DigiMarCon (such as, information we need to share with our credit card internet gateway), or to comply with governmental or internal record-keeping requirements as reasonably required. We may release Personal Information to third parties: (1) to comply with valid legal requirements such as a law, regulation, search warrant, subpoena or court order; or (2) in special cases, such as a financial threat to you or others. In the event that we are legally compelled to disclose your Personal Information to a third party, we will notify you unless doing so would violate the law or court order.
DigiMarCon operations and maintenance contractors may sometimes have limited access to your Personal Information in the course of providing products or services to DigiMarCon. These contractors include vendors and suppliers that provide us with technology, services, and/or content related to operation and maintenance of our Web site. These contractors also may have access to your e-mail address to send newsletters or special promotions to you on our behalf or to send e-mails to you for purposes such as conducting market research on our behalf. Access to your Personal Information by these contractors is limited to the information reasonably necessary in order for the contractor to perform its limited function for DigiMarCon.
DigiMarCon may provide to third parties non-personal information about you that does not allow you to be identified or contacted and that is combined with the non-personal information of other users ("Aggregate Information"). For example, we might inform third parties regarding the number of users of our site and the activities they conduct while on our site. We might also inform a company that performs services or that provides products and/or services to DigiMarCon (that may or may not be a DigiMarCon business partner or an advertiser on our site) that "50% of our users live in the USA" or that "85% of our users have purchased products and/or services which can be downloaded from DigiMarCon Web site." Depending on the circumstances, we may or may not charge third parties for this Aggregate Information. We may not limit the third parties' use of the Aggregate Information.
DigiMarCon wants your Personal Information to remain as secure and accurate as possible. We implement appropriate measures and processes to protect your Personal Information and maintain its quality, such as encryption. Although we make reasonable efforts to protect your Personal Information from loss, misuse, or alteration by third parties, you should be aware that there is always some risk involved in transmitting information over the Internet. There is also some risk that thieves could find a way to thwart our security systems.
You will be given the option to opt in or sign up for recurring informational/promotional e-mails from DigiMarCon and/or third parties. You may opt out of receiving e-mails from or on behalf of DigiMarCon. You may opt out of receiving these e-mails and newsletters at any time. When you have received a newsletter you wish to stop, click on the "reply" button in your mail program, then type in the word "UNSUBSCRIBE" in the "Subject" field and send. DigiMarCon Customer Service will unsubscribe you.
You may also have the option of receiving e-mails or newsletters from third parties, participating in research or marketing surveys and participating in other activities. You may exercise these options by placing a check mark beside a statement that expresses a preference for receiving these communications or participating in these activities. You may change your decision at any time by following the directions regarding how to unsubscribe from these e-mails or newsletters.
This privacy statement applies only to the Site. The DigiMarCon Web site does contain links to other sites. Once you enter another Web site (whether through an advertisement, service, or content link), be aware that DigiMarCon has no control over and is not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage you to look for and review the privacy statements of each and every Web site that you visit through a link or advertisement on DigiMarCon Web site or any site that collects Personal Information from you.
You can always contact us in order to (1) delete your Personal Information from our systems, (2) update the Personal Information that you have provided to us, and (3) change your preferences with respect to marketing contacts or other activities, by e-mailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Such changes will not have any effect on other information that DigiMarCon maintains. If you have a complaint or problem you may e-mail us at email@example.com and the customer service department will forward your complaint to the appropriate internal DigiMarCon department for a response or resolution. We try to answer every e-mail in a timely manner but are not always able to do so.
You should be aware that it may not be technologically possible to remove each and every record of the information you have provided to DigiMarCon from our servers. The need to back-up our systems to protect information from inadvertent loss means that a copy of your Personal Information may exist in a non-erasable form that may be difficult or impossible for us to locate. Nevertheless, upon receiving your request, we will endeavor to delete all Personal Information stored in the databases we actively use for research and daily business activities, as well as other readily searchable media.
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